8 Little-Known Side Effects of Too Much Fish Oil

 Fish oil is well known for its wealth of health-promoting properties.

Rich in heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil has been shown to reduce blood triglycerides, relieve inflammation and even ease symptoms of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (1Trusted Source).

However, more fish oil is not always better, and taking too high a dose may actually do more harm than good when it comes to your health.

Here are 8 potential side effects that can occur when you consume too much fish oil or omega-3 fatty acids.

1. High Blood Sugar

Some research shows that supplementing with high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids could increase blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.

One small study, for example, found that taking 8 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day led to a 22% increase in blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes over an eight-week period (2Trusted Source).

This is because large doses of omega-3s can stimulate the production of glucose, which can contribute to high levels of long-term blood sugar levels (3Trusted Source).

However, other research has turned up conflicting results, suggesting that only very high doses impact blood sugar.

In fact, another analysis of 20 studies found that daily doses of up to 3.9 grams of EPA and 3.7 grams of DHA — the two main forms of omega-3 fatty acids — had no effect on blood sugar levels for individuals with type 2 diabetes (4Trusted Source).

SUMMARYTaking high doses of omega-3 fatty acids can stimulate glucose production, which may lead to increased blood sugar — though the scientific evidence is not conclusive.

2. Bleeding

Bleeding gums and nosebleeds are two of the hallmark side effects of excess fish oil consumption.

One study in 56 people found that supplementing with 640 mg of fish oil per day over a four-week period decreased blood clotting in healthy adults (6Trusted Source).

Additionally, another small study showed that taking fish oil may be linked to a higher risk of nosebleeds, reporting that 72% of adolescents taking 1–5 grams of fish oil daily experienced nosebleeds as a side effect (7).

For this reason, it’s often advised to stop taking fish oil prior to surgery and to talk to your doctor before taking supplements if you’re on blood thinners like Warfarin.

SUMMARYTaking large amounts of fish oil can inhibit blood clot formation, which may increase the risk of bleeding and cause symptoms such as nosebleeds or bleeding gums.

3. Low Blood Pressure

Fish oil’s capacity to lower blood pressure is well documented.

One study of 90 people on dialysis found that taking 3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day significantly decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to a placebo (8Trusted Source).

Similarly, an analysis of 31 studies concluded that taking fish oil can effectively lower blood pressure, especially for those with high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels (9Trusted Source).

While these effects can certainly be beneficial for those with high blood pressure, it can cause serious problems for those who have low blood pressure.

Fish oil may also interact with blood pressure-lowering medications, so it’s important to discuss supplements with your doctor if you’re receiving treatment for high blood pressure.

SUMMARYOmega-3 fatty acids have been shown to lower blood pressure, which may interfere with certain medications and cause problems for those with low blood pressure.

4. Diarrhea

Diarrhea is one of the most common side effects associated with taking fish oil, and may be especially prevalent while taking high doses.

In fact, one review reported that diarrhea is one of the most common adverse effects of fish oil, alongside other digestive symptoms such as flatulence (10Trusted Source).

In addition to fish oil, other types of omega-3 supplements may also cause diarrhea.

Flaxseed oil, for example, is a popular vegetarian alternative to fish oil, but has been shown to have a laxative effect and may increase bowel movement frequency (11Trusted Source).

If you experience diarrhea after taking omega-3 fatty acids, make sure you’re taking your supplements with meals and consider decreasing your dosage to see if symptoms persist.

SUMMARYDiarrhea is a side effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements such as fish oil and flaxseed oil.

5. Acid Reflux

Although fish oil is known for its powerful effects on heart health, many people report feeling heartburn after starting to take fish oil supplements.

Other acid reflux symptoms — including belching, nausea and stomach discomfort — are common side effects of fish oil due largely to its high fat content. Fat has been shown to trigger indigestion in several studies (12Trusted Source13Trusted Source).

Sticking to a moderate dose and taking supplements with meals can often effectively reduce acid reflux and relieve symptoms.

Additionally, splitting your dose into a few smaller portions throughout the day may help eliminate indigestion.

SUMMARYFish oil is high in fat and may cause acid reflux symptoms such as belching, nausea, indigestion and heartburn in some people.

6. Stroke

Hemorrhagic stroke is a condition characterized by bleeding in the brain, usually caused by the rupture of weakened blood vessels.

Some animal studies have found that a high intake of omega-3 fatty acids could decrease the blood’s ability to clot and increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (14Trusted Source15Trusted Source).

These findings are also consistent with other research showing that fish oil could inhibit blood clot formation (16Trusted Source).

However, other studies have turned up mixed results, reporting that there is no association between fish and fish oil intake and hemorrhagic stroke risk (17Trusted Source18Trusted Source).

Further human studies should be conducted to determine how omega-3 fatty acids may impact the risk of hemorrhagic stroke.

SUMMARYSome animal studies have found that a high intake of omega-3 fatty acids could increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke while other human studies have found no association.

7. Vitamin A Toxicity

Certain types of omega-3 fatty acid supplements are high in vitamin A, which can be toxic if consumed in large amounts.

For example, just one tablespoon (14 grams) of cod liver oil can fulfill up to 270% of your daily vitamin A needs in one serving (19).

Vitamin A toxicity can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, joint pain and skin irritation (20Trusted Source).

Long term, it could also lead to liver damage and even liver failure in severe cases (21Trusted Source).

For this reason, it’s best to pay close attention to the vitamin A content of your omega-3 supplement and keep your dosage moderate.

SUMMARYCertain types of omega-3 fatty acid supplements, such as cod liver oil, are high in vitamin A, which can be toxic in large amounts.

8. Insomnia

Some studies have found that taking moderate doses of fish oil could enhance sleep quality.

One study of 395 children, for instance, showed that taking 600 mg of omega-3 fatty acids daily for 16 weeks helped improve sleep quality (22Trusted Source).

In some cases, though, taking too much fish oil may actually interfere with sleep and contribute to insomnia.

In one case study, it was reported that taking a high dose of fish oil worsened symptoms of insomnia and anxiety for a patient with a history of depression (23Trusted Source).

However, current research is limited to case studies and anecdotal reports.

More research is needed to understand how large doses may affect sleep quality in the general population.

SUMMARYAlthough moderate doses of fish oil have been shown to improve sleep quality, one case study suggests that taking large amounts caused insomnia.

How Much Is Too Much?

Although recommendations can vary widely, most health organizations recommend an intake of at least 250–500 milligrams of combined EPA and DHA, the two essential forms of omega-3 fatty acids, per day (24Trusted Source25Trusted Source26Trusted Source).

However, a higher amount is often recommended for people with certain health conditions, such as heart disease or high triglyceride levels (27Trusted Source).

For reference, a typical 1,000-mg fish oil softgel generally contains about 250 mg of combined EPA and DHA, while one teaspoon (5 ml) of liquid fish oil packs in around 1,300 mg.

According to the European Food Safety Authority, omega-3 fatty acid supplements can be safely consumed at doses up to 5,000 mg daily (24Trusted Source).

As a general rule of thumb, if you experience any negative symptoms, simply decrease your intake or consider meeting your omega-3 fatty acid needs through food sources instead.

SUMMARYUp to 5,000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids per day is considered safe. If you experience any negative symptoms, decrease your intake or switch to food sources instead.

The Bottom Line

Omega-3 is an essential part of the diet and supplements like fish oil have been associated with a number of health benefits.

However, consuming too much fish oil could actually take a toll on your health and lead to side effects such as high blood sugar and an increased risk of bleeding.

Stick to the recommended dosage and aim to get the majority of your omega-3 fatty acids from whole food sources to get the most nutritional gain.

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