Urethral discharge causes and tests

urethral discharge test

Urethral discharge is a condition in especially in male caused by STIs in most cases. The discharge may appear in combination  with pain. Urethral discharge happens after urethritis which comes by infection of the urethra.

 The male urethra is the tube that carries urine and semen through your penis, outside of your body. Urethral discharge is any type of discharge or liquid, besides urine or semen, that comes out of the opening of the penis.

It can be several different colors and happens due to irritation or infection of the urethra.

A urethral discharge culture is used to identify infections in your urethra or genital tract, specifically for men and male children. This culture is also called a culture of urethral discharge, or a genital exudate culture.

Most often, your healthcare provider will recommend a urethral discharge culture test if you have signs or symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection, including:

  • painful urination
  • increased urine frequency
  • discharge from the urethra
  • redness or swelling around the urethra
  • swollen testicles

The culture tests for any bacterial or fungal organisms present in your urethra. The test can detect sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.


Causes of urethral discharge

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that affects the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract.

This includes:

  • the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women
  • the urethra in women and men

Gonorrhea most commonly occurs in your genital tract, but it can also occur in your throat or anus.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted bacterial infectionTrusted Source in the United States. It can cause urethritis and proctitis (infection of the rectum) in both men and women.

Symptoms for both gonorrheal and chlamydial infections in the urethra in males include:

  • painful urination
  • pus-like discharge from the tip of the penis
  • pain or swelling in the testicles

Gonorrheal or chlamydial proctitis in men and women are often associated with rectal pain and pus, or bloody discharge from the rectum.

Reproductive tract infections in women with gonorrhea or chlamydia are usually associated with abnormal vaginal discharge, lower abdominal or vaginal pain, and painful intercourse.

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite called trichomonas vaginalis (Tv). TV is a parasite in a group called protozoa. The parasite passes between people during genital contact, including vaginal, oral or anal sex. The infection by Tv is contracted through sexual contact in female and male during oral, vaginal or anal sex.

In male sex, trichomoniasis causes symptoms and signs like: 

  • irritation and itchiness inside the penis
  • Burning sensation when urinating or ejaculation
  • Discharge from the penis

Penile fungal infection


Urethral Fungal infection by Candida albicans can cause discharge and itching. Though not common in males than females (vaginal yeast infection),  the infection exist and needs treatment to prevent complications.

Urethral discharge culture testing is a relatively simple but uncomfortable procedure. Some risks include:

  • fainting, due to stimulation of the vagus nerve
  • infection
  • bleeding

Your doctor or nurse will perform the test in their office.

To prepare, refrain from urinating at least 1 hour before the test. Urination may wash away some of the germs that the test is trying to capture.

First, your healthcare provider or nurse will clean the tip of your penis with a sterile swab, where the urethra is located. Then, they’ll insert a sterile cotton swab about three-quarters of an inch into your urethra and turn the swab to gather a large enough sample. The process is quick, but it may be uncomfortable or slightly painful.

The sample is then sent to a lab where it’s put into a culture. Lab technicians will monitor the sample and check for any bacteria or other growth. The test results should be available to you in a few days.

You may also be able to obtain STI tests you can do at home and mail in for anonymity and comfort.

A normal, negative result means there’s no growth in the culture, and you don’t have an infection.

An abnormal, positive result means growth was detected in the culture. This signals an infection in your genital tract. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common infections.

Sometimes a person can carry one of these organisms without showing any symptoms.

The current recommendationsTrusted Source include testing for STIs such as gonorrhea and chlamydia for:

  • sexually active women younger than 25
  • men who have sex with men (MSM)
  • MSM with multiple partners

Even if you’re not having symptoms, you can still transmit one of these infections to one of your sexual partners if you’re carrying the bacteria.

As always, you should practice sex with a condom or other barrier method to prevent transmitting STIs.

If you’re diagnosed with an STI, it’s important to notify your previous and current sexual partners, so that they can be tested as well.


Treatment of urethral discharge

Treatment of urethral discharge depends on the cause. The fisrt step is to know the correct diagnosis. Your doctor will ask if you have had sexual contact without protection. The cause of urethral discharge i.e gonorrhea, chlamydia and fungal infection needs to be treated accordingly. 

The commonest causes of urethral discharge are sexually transmitted infections. A urethral discharge culture maybe needed to single out the cause and treatment. 

Jose Phiri

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