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Showing posts with label Diarrhea. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Diarrhea. Show all posts

Meat Temperature: A Guide to Safe Cooking

 Animal-based protein sources like beef, chicken, and lamb contain many nutrients 

However, these meats can also harbor bacteria, including SalmonellaCampylobacterE. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause serious foodborne illnesses. Hence, it’s important to cook meat to safe temperatures before eating it (2Trusted Source3Trusted Source4Trusted Source).

Food safety experts say that meat is considered safe to eat when cooked for long enough and at a temperature high enough to kill harmful organisms (5).

This article discusses the recommended temperatures for safely cooking different meats and explains how to properly take the temperature of meat.

Safe cooking temperatures vary depending on the type of meat being prepared.

Here is an overview of ideal internal temperatures for different types and cuts of meat, with more detailed information to follow below (567):

MeatInternal temperature
Poultry165°F (75°C)
Poultry, ground165°F (75°C)
Beef, ground160°F (70°C)
Beef, steak or roast145°F (65°C)
Veal145°F (65°C)
Lamb, ground160°F (70°C)
Lamb, chops145°F (65°C)
Mutton145°F (65°C)
Pork145°F (65°C)
Ham145°F (65°C)
Ham, precooked and reheated165°F (75°C)
Venison, ground160°F (70°C)
Venison, steak or roast145°F (65°C)
Rabbit160°F (70°C)
Bison, ground160°F (70°C)
Bison, steak or roast145°F (65°C)


Popular types of poultry include chicken, duck, goose, turkey, pheasant, and quail. This refers to whole birds, as well as all parts of a bird that people might eat, including wings, thighs, legs, ground meat, and giblets.

Raw poultry may be contaminated with Campylobacter, which can cause bloody diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and muscle cramps. Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens are also commonly found in raw poultry and cause similar symptoms (8Trusted Source9Trusted Source10Trusted Source).

The safe internal temperature for cooking poultry — in whole and ground form — is 165°F (75°C) (6).


Ground beef, including meatballs, sausages, and burgers, should reach an internal cooking temperature of 160°F (70°C). Steak and veal should be cooked to at least 145°F (65°C) (611).

Ground meats often have a higher internal cooking temperature, as bacteria or parasites spread to the entire batch when you grind meat.

Beef is a source of E. coli O157:H7, a bacterium that can cause life-threatening conditions. These include hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can lead to kidney failure, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, which causes blood clots throughout your body (1213Trusted Source14Trusted Source).

The protein that causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which is related to mad cow disease, has also been found in beef products. This is a fatal brain disorder in adult cows that can be passed to humans who eat contaminated beef (15Trusted Source16).

Lamb and mutton

Lamb refers to the meat of young sheep in their first year, while mutton is the meat from adult sheep. They’re often eaten unprocessed, but some cultures around the world eat smoked and salted lamb.

Lamb meat can contain pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureusSalmonella enteritidisEscherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter, which can cause serious foodborne illnesses (5).

To kill these organisms, ground lamb should be cooked to 160°F (70°C), while lamb chops and mutton should reach at least 145°F (65°C) (56).

Pork and ham

You can contract trichinosis, which is caused by the parasite Trichinella spiralis, by eating raw and undercooked pork products. Trichinosis causes nausea, vomiting, fever, and muscle pain, lasting for up to 8 weeks and leading to death in rare instances (517Trusted Source18Trusted Source).

Fresh pork or ham should be heated to 145°F (65°C). If you’re reheating a precooked ham or pork product, the safe temperature is 165°F (75°C) (6).

It’s difficult to determine an internal cooking temperature of thin meats like bacon, but if bacon is cooked until crispy, it can usually be assumed to be fully cooked (5).

Wild game

Some people like to hunt or eat wild game, such as deer and elk (venison), buffalo (bison), or rabbit. These types of meat have their own safe internal cooking temperatures, but they are similar to those of other meats.

Ground venison should be cooked to a minimum temperature of 160°F (70°C), while whole cut steaks or roasts should reach 145°F (65°C) (7).

Once these internal temperatures have been reached, the venison is considered safe to eat regardless of what color it is, as it still may be pink inside (7).

Rabbit and ground bison should also be cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F (70°C), while bison steaks and roasts should be cooked to 145°F (65°C) (519).


Safe internal cooking temperatures vary depending on the type of meat but are commonly around 145°F (65°C) for whole meats and 160–165°F (70–75°C) for ground meats. This includes traditional meats like chicken and beef, as well as wild game.

It’s impossible to tell if meat is thoroughly cooked just by smelling, tasting, or looking at it. To ensure safety, it’s important to know how to properly take the temperature of cooked meats (20Trusted Source).

A meat thermometer should be inserted into the thickest part of the meat. It should not be touching bone, gristle, or fat.

For hamburger patties or chicken breasts, insert the thermometer through the side. If you’re cooking several pieces of meat, each piece needs to be checked (21).

Temperatures should be read near the end of the meat cooking time but before the meat is expected to be done (22).

When meat is done cooking, it should sit for at least three minutes before being carved or eaten. This period is called rest time. It’s when the meat temperature either stays consistent or continues to rise, killing harmful organisms (22).

Choosing a meat thermometer

Here are five of the most common thermometers for taking meat temperature (5):

  • Oven-safe thermometers. Place this thermometer 2–2.5 inches (5–6.5 cm) into the thickest part of the meat and read the results in 2 minutes. It can safely remain in the meat as it cooks in the oven.
  • Digital instant-read thermometers. This thermometer is placed 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) deep into the meat and can stay in place while it cooks. The temperature is ready to read in about 10 seconds.
  • Dial instant-read thermometers. This type of thermometer is placed 2–2.5 inches (5–6.5 cm) deep into the thickest part of the meat but cannot stay in the meat while it cooks. Read the temperature in 15–20 seconds.
  • Pop-up thermometers. This type is common in poultry and sometimes comes with a packaged turkey or chicken. The thermometer will pop up when it reaches its safe internal temperature.
  • Disposable temperature indicators. These are one-time use readers designed for specific temperature ranges. They change color in 5–10 seconds, indicating that they’re ready to read.

When choosing a meat thermometer, think about the types of meat that you usually cook, as well as your cooking methods. For instance, if you cook meat frequently, you may prefer a durable, multi-use thermometer that will last a long time.

You can find a wide variety of meat thermometers both locally and online.


Many thermometers are available to help you ensure that your meat has reached a safe internal temperature. Your choice depends on your personal preferences and how frequently you cook raw meat.

Meat should be kept out of the danger zone — a temperature range between 40°F (5°C) and 140°F (60°C) in which bacteria grow quickly (5).

After meat is cooked, it should remain at a minimum of 140°F (60°C) while serving, and then be refrigerated within 2 hours of cooking or removing it from the oven. Similarly, cold meats, like a chicken salad or ham sandwich, need to be kept at 40°F (5°C) or colder (5).

Meat that has been at room temperature for over 2 hours, or at 90°F (35°C) for 1 hour, should be thrown away (5).

Leftover meats and dishes containing meat, including casseroles, soups, or stews, should be safely reheated to an internal temperature of 165°F (75°C). This can be done using a saucepan, microwave, or oven (5).


It’s important to reheat leftover meats to a safe internal temperature of 165°F (75°C). Also, to prevent bacterial growth, cooked meats should be kept out of the danger zone, which is a temperature range between 40°F (5°C) and 140°F (60°C).

If you cook and consume meat, it’s important to know safe internal cooking temperatures to reduce your risk of contracting foodborne illnesses and infections from potentially harmful bacteria.

Meat products can pose a high risk of foodborne illnesses, which can be very serious.

Safe internal cooking temperatures vary depending on the type of meat but are commonly around 145°F (65°C) for whole meats and 160–165°F (70–75°C) for ground meats.

Be sure to choose a meat thermometer that works for you and use it regularly when preparing meat to ensure it’s safe to eat.

JPeei Clinic


 Shigellosis is a bacterial infection that affects the digestive system. It’s caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella.

The Shigella bacterium is spread through contaminated water and food or through contact with contaminated feces. The bacteria release toxins that irritate the intestines, causing the primary symptom of diarrhea.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, about 450,000 people in the United States report having shigellosis every year. The symptoms vary in intensity. You may have a mild shigellosis infection and not even realize or report it.

Young children are more likelyTrusted Source than older children and adults to get shigellosis. This may be because young children put their fingers in their mouths often and are more likely to ingest the bacteria. The large number of diaper changes in childcare centers may also increase the concentration of infection in this age group.

Frequent bouts of watery diarrhea are the main symptomTrusted Source of shigellosis. Abdominal cramping, nausea, and vomiting may also occur. Many people who have shigellosis also have either blood or mucus in their stool, and they may run a fever.

Symptoms usually beginTrusted Source within 1–2 days of coming in contact with Shigella. In some cases, symptoms of infection may appear in as little as 12 hoursTrusted Source after contact.

Diarrhea and other signs of shigellosis usually last between 5–7 daysTrusted Source. Mild infection lasting a couple of days may not require treatment.

It’s still possible for Shigella bacteria to be present in your stool for weeks after your symptoms have gone away. This means that you can potentially spread the infection to others for several weeks, even though you feel better.

It’s critical to stay hydrated in between bouts of diarrhea. Call your doctor if you have diarrhea for longer than 3 days. This is very important, especially if you can’t keep down food or water. Dehydration is a real danger associated with shigellosis.

Combating dehydration is the main goal of treatment for most cases of shigellosis. It’s importantTrusted Source to drink plenty of fluids, especially electrolyte solutions, many of which are available over the counter.

It’s usually not advisable to take any type of medication to relieve your diarrhea, as this will keep the bacteria in your system longer and may make the infection worse.

Moderate or severe infections may require medical treatment. Treatment will usually include antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria from your digestive tract.

Your doctor may test your stool to confirm that Shigella is the source of the infection. Confirmation of Shigella helps your doctor to choose the right medication to fight shigellosis. Drug options include powerful antibiotic medications, such asTrusted Source:

Hospitalization for shigellosis is rare. However, in some severe situations, hospitalization is required. If you have extreme nausea and vomiting, you may need intravenous fluids and medication.

Most people have no lasting ill effects from shigellosis.

The CDC reports that approximately 2 percentTrusted Source of people who contract Shigella flexneri (one of several types of Shigella) develop a condition called post-infection arthritis. Symptoms of post-infection arthritis include joint pain, painful urination, and eye irritation.

Post-infection arthritis can become a chronic condition that lasts several months, years, or the rest of your life. It’s caused by a reaction to the Shigella infection and happens only in people who are genetically predisposed to it.

Other potential but rare complications of shigellosis include bloodstream infections, seizures in young children, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

Shigella is a group of several different bacteria. Once you’ve contracted one type of Shigella, you’re unlikely to develop an infection from the same bacteria again. However, you may contract a different bacterium from the same family.

You can prevent shigellosisTrusted Source by practicing good personal hygiene:

  • Wash your hands before and after you use the bathroom or change a diaper
  • Discard dirty diapers in a closed bag or trashcan to prevent the spread of the bacteria
  • Use soap and warm water every time you wash your hands
  • Wipe down changing tables and kitchen counters with antibacterial wipes before and after use.

Avoid close personal contact with someone who has shigellosis until at least several days after the diarrhea has ended. People who have shigellosis shouldn’t prepare food for others until they feel better and stop having diarrhea.

Your doctor may test your stool again after your symptoms end to be sure Shigella is no longer present.

JPeei Clinic

What You Should Know About Explosive Diarrhea

 What is diarrhea?

Explosive or severe diarrhea is diarrhea in overdrive. The contractions of your bowels that help you pass feces become stronger and more forceful. Your rectum fills with more volume than it can contain. Often, large amounts of gas accompany severe diarrhea. This increases the ejection and loudness of the bowel movement.

Diarrhea is defined as bowel movements of a more liquid consistency, or an increase in the number or volume of bowel movements. The World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source is more specific, defining diarrhea as three or more loose or liquid stools a day.

Approximately 75 percentTrusted Source of your stool is made of water. The other 25 percent is a combination of:

  • undigested carbohydrates
  • fiber
  • protein
  • fat
  • mucus
  • intestinal secretions

As feces travel through your digestive system, fluids and electrolytes are added to their content. Normally, your large intestine absorbs the excess fluid.

When you have diarrhea, though, digestion speeds up. Either the large intestine isn’t able to absorb the rush of fluid or more than the usual amount of fluids and electrolytes are secreted during digestion.

Diarrhea is a symptom that occurs with a number of conditions. The most common causes for severe diarrhea include:

Bacterial and viral infection

Bacteria that cause diarrhea-producing infections include salmonella and E. coli. Contaminated food and fluids are common sources of bacterial infections.

Rotavirus, norovirus, and other kinds of viral gastroenteritis, commonly referred to as “stomach flu,” are among the viruses that can cause explosive diarrhea.

Anyone can get these viruses. But they’re especially common among school-age children. And they’re common in hospitals and nursing homes, and on cruise ships.

Learn more: Is it a stomach bug or food poisoning? Tips for identification »

Parasitic infection

Parasites like Giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium can cause severe diarrhea, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. As with viral and bacterial causes, these parasites are spread when there’s direct or indirect contact between feces and the mouth.

These parasites are found in contaminated drinking water, recreational waters, and food. Day care centers, where caregivers may not wash their hands well enough after changing diapers, are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks.

Diseases of the bowel

Diarrhea is a common problem for people who have an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, or celiac disease.


Many medications can cause diarrhea. Antibiotics, certain medications used to treat heartburn and acid reflux, and chemotherapy drugs are frequent culprits.

Allergies or food intolerance

Diarrhea often occurs when you are allergic to, or have an intolerance of, certain foods, like the lactose found in dairy products.

Explosive diarrhea is usually short-lived. But there are complications that require medical care. These include:


Loss of fluids from diarrhea can cause dehydration. This is a particular concern in infants and children, older adults, and people with compromised immune systems.

An infant can become severely dehydrated within 24 hours.

Chronic diarrhea

If you have diarrhea for more than four weeks, it’s considered chronic. Your doctor will advise testing to determine the cause of the condition so it can be treated.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare complication of E. coli infections. It occurs most often in children, though adults, particularly older adults, can get it, too.

HUS can cause life-threatening kidney failure if not treated promptly. With treatment, most people fully recover from the condition.

Symptoms of HUS include:

  • severe diarrhea, and stools that may be bloody
  • fever
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • decreased urination
  • bruising

Diarrhea is common. It’s estimated that adults in the United States experience 99 million episodes of diarrhea each year. Some people are at greater risk and include:

  • children and adults who are exposed to feces, especially those who are involved in changing diapers
  • people who travel to developing countries, particularly in tropical regions
  • people taking certain medications, including antibiotics and medications used to treat heartburn
  • people who have bowel disease

Diarrhea normally clears up within a few days without treatment. But you should see your doctor if you have the following symptoms:

  • diarrhea lasting longer than two days or 24 hours in a child
  • signs of dehydration, including excessive thirst, dry mouth, reduced urination, or dizziness
  • blood or pus in your stool, or stool that’s black in color
  • a fever of 101.5 °F (38.6 °C) or greater in an adult, or 100.4 °F (38 °C) or higher in a child
  • severe abdominal or rectal pain
  • diarrhea at night

You can connect to a physician in your area using the Healthline FindCare tool.

Your doctor will ask questions about your symptoms, including:

  • how long you’ve had diarrhea
  • if your stools are black and tarry, or contain blood or pus
  • other symptoms you’re experiencing
  • medications you’re taking

You doctor will also ask about any clues you may have as to the cause of the diarrhea. Clues could be a food or fluid you suspect may have something to do with your illness, travel to a developing country, or a day of swimming in a lake

After providing these details, your doctor may:

  • do a physical examination
  • test your stool
  • order blood tests

In many cases, treatment will involve managing your symptoms while you wait for the diarrhea to pass. The primary treatment for severe diarrhea is to replace fluids and electrolytes. Electrolytes are the minerals in your body fluid that conduct the electricity your body needs to function.

Drink more fluids, like water, and juice, or broths. Oral hydration solutions, such as Pedialyte, are formulated specifically for infants and children, and contain important electrolytes. These solutions are also available for adults. Find a great selection here.

You can use over-the-counter (OTC) anti-diarrheal medications if your stool isn’t black or bloody, and you don’t have a fever. These symptoms indicate you may have a bacterial infection or parasites, which can be made worse by antidiarrheal medications.

OTC medications should not be given to children under the age of two unless approved by a doctor. If your infection is bacterial, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics.

It’s difficult to completely avoid getting severe diarrhea. But there are steps you can take to protect yourself and your family.

  • Sanitation is crucial. Wash your hands with soap and warm water, especially before handling food, after using the toilet, or after changing a diaper.
  • If you’re traveling to an area where water purity is a concern, stick with bottled water for drinking and brushing your teeth. And peel raw fruit or vegetables before eating.

If you do get explosive diarrhea, there are some steps you can take to make yourself more comfortable and improve your outlook for a speedy recovery:

  • It’s important to rehydrate. Keep sipping water and other fluids. Stick to a diet of clear liquids for a day or two until the diarrhea stops.
  • Avoid sugary fruit juices, caffeine, carbonated drinks, dairy products, and food that’s greasy, overly sweet, or high in fiber.
  • There’s one exception to avoiding dairy products: Yogurt with live, active cultures may help curb diarrhea.
  • Eat a diet of bland, soft foods for a day or two. Starchy foods like cereal, rice, potatoes, and soups made without milk are good choices.

In most people, diarrhea will clear up without requiring treatment or a trip to the doctor. Sometimes, though, you may need medical treatment, especially if your diarrhea leads to dehydration.

Diarrhea is a symptom rather than a condition. The underlying cause of diarrhea varies greatly. People who have signs of complications or chronic diarrhea need to work with their doctor to determine the cause so that it can be treated.

JPeei Clinic