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Showing posts with label Heart Disease. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Heart Disease. Show all posts

Do Salt Substitutes Improve Your Heart Health? Here’s What Experts Think

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Experts say there are ways to reduce the salt in your diet other than using salt substitutes. Getty Images
  • Researchers in China say using a salt substitute can help improve heart health.
  • But experts say the study results don’t necessarily apply to the United States because of different diets and the larger intake of processed foods.
  • They suggest including more fruits and vegetables as one way to reduce sodium consumption without using salt substitutes.

Switching from table salt to salt substitutes can help reduce the risk of stroke in people over age 60 with a history of high blood pressure or prior stroke.

That’s according to a study published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The research included nearly 21,000 participants and took place in 600 villages in rural areas of five provinces in China.

About 72 percent of study participants had a history of stroke, and 88 percent had a history of high blood pressure.

Participants were given free salt substitutes (about 75 percent sodium chloride and 25 percent potassium chloride) as a replacement for regular salt and advised to use it for all cooking, seasoning, and food preservation.

They were also encouraged to use the salt substitute more sparingly than they previously used salt to maximize their sodium reduction.

Enough salt substitute was provided to cover the needs of the entire household (about 20 grams per person per day).

Participants in other villages continued their usual cooking and eating habits.

The project was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council.

“This study provides clear evidence about an intervention that could be taken up very quickly at very low cost… We have now shown that it is effective and these are the benefits for China alone. Salt substitution could be used by billions more with even greater benefits,” said Dr. Bruce Neal, a principal investigator in the study and a professor at the George Institute for Global Health in Sydney, Australia, in a press release.

A big question stemming from this research is whether it’s applicable in the United States and other countries outside of China.

“Although I wish I could say yes, it’s more realistic to say probably no,” said Dr. Elizabeth Klodas, FAAC, a cardiologist based in Minneapolis and the founder of Step One Foods.

Klodas noted that since the study looked at high-risk populations, the findings may not translate to other populations (for example, people without high blood pressure and no prior stroke).

“This was also a study of a unique genetic/cultural group with specific dietary habits/patterns and may not translate to other populations,” Klodas told Healthline.

The biggest barrier for lowering sodium intake in the United States is that much of our sodium intake is not under our control.

“In rural China, most meals are cooked from scratch, so sodium intake is under the control of the food preparer. Americans consume far more pre-prepared and processed foods — and a lot of those items deliver a lot of sodium even before we pick up the salt shaker,” Klodas explained.

Sodium can also hide almost anywhere, she said.

A plain bagel, for example, can contribute 450 milligrams of sodium, even before you put anything on it. The maximum recommended sodium intake is 2,300 milligrams a day, so one bagel is about 20 percent of an entire day’s sodium allotment.

“The salt substitute won’t help you much there,” Klodas said.

“Finally, baseline salt consumption was very high (assumed to be as much as 20 grams of salt per person per day), so the effect seen might not translate to those consuming less salt to begin with,” she added.

Kimberly Gomer, MS, RD, LDN, director of nutrition at Pritikin Longevity Center, explained that while in theory a salt substitute would improve cardiovascular risk since it would certainly improve high blood pressure, it comes with a price.

“Potassium chloride as a substitute is a problem. As we age, our kidney function naturally slows. We measure kidney function by glomerular filtration rate, or GFR.

“Our kidneys are our filtering device. So the natural aging process will slow GFR, and putting potassium directly on foods as a seasoning will negatively affect this,” Gomer told Healthline.

Ultimately, said Klodas, the answer is not to figure out how to manipulate the sodium content of what we habitually eat, but rather to change what we eat.

“We never recommend those salt substitutes but instead recommend beautiful herbs, both dried and fresh, to enhance the taste of food,” Gomer said.

She explained such a change is an adjustment of the palate.

Because we are used to heavily salted foods and the use of salt and other high salt seasoning, such as soy sauce, teriyaki, and all the various black and Himalayan salts that are now popular, it can take weeks or months to make this adjustment.

“One easy way to reduce sodium in our diets is to purposefully add in foods that are naturally sodium-free, including all fresh fruits and vegetables,” Klodas said. “This helps to naturally displace higher sodium items.”

She explained that eating a piece of fruit before having lunch or dinner, for example, can be a way to help lower sodium intake while increasing intake of multiple beneficial nutrients, including potassium.

“Adding fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables while reducing sodium intake has been shown to be as effective as adding a drug for lowering blood pressure,” Klodas said.

While it takes some time to make the switch and see the benefits, Gomer said the positives are clear.

“Less bloating, decreased water retention, easier weight loss due to lack of salt stimulation and, most important, a reduction of blood pressure (quickly) in those that are salt sensitive,” she noted.

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People with No Known Heart Disease Can Still Have Fatty Deposits in Blood Vessels

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Some screenings for atherosclerosis can miss non-calcified deposits in blood vessels. Getty Images
  • Researchers say atherosclerosis can still be a risk for people who have no known heart disease.
  • That’s because screening done for the disease can sometimes miss non-calcified deposits in blood vessels.
  • Experts say more advanced tests should be used when assessing a person’s heart health.

Heart disease is often called a “silent killer.”

That description is backed up by a new study showing that even many people who have no symptoms can have potentially deadly atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries.

Researchers in Sweden said that more than 42 percent of study participants ages 50 to 64 who had no known heart disease were found to have some degree of fatty deposits in their blood vessels.

Dr. Donald Lloyd-Jones, the chair of the department of preventive medicine at Northwestern Medicine in Illinois and the president of the American Heart Association, told Healthline that the research is important because it looks at the general population rather than just people with known risk of heart disease.

Lloyd-Jones said the findings were not surprising, “given the prevalence of risk factors in our society, that these middle-aged people have some degree of atherosclerosis.”

The research, published today in the journal Circulation, found that while common screening tests for atherosclerosis capture calcium-containing plaques in the arteries, they can miss non-calcified deposits.

“Measuring the amount of calcification is important, yet it does not give information about non-calcified atherosclerosis, which also increases heart attack risk,” said Dr. Göran Bergström, the lead study author and a professor and senior consultant in clinical physiology in the department of molecular and clinical medicine at the University of Gothenburg’s Institute of Medicine in Sweden.

“It is important to know that silent coronary atherosclerosis is common among middle-aged adults, and it increases sharply with sex, age, and risk factors,” he said.

Cardiac CT scans are commonly used as part of assessing cardiac risk.

The cross-sectional scan of the blood vessels yields what’s known as a coronary artery calcification (CAC) score, which can range from 0 to 400. The higher the number, the greater the risk of having a heart attack in the next 10 years.

Yet the study by Bergström and colleagues found that even some people with a low CAC score can have significant atherosclerosis.

“Someone experiencing chest pain may seem safe if they have a CAC score of zero but could still be at risk,” Dr. Renee Bullock-Palmer, a cardiologist and the director of Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging at Deborah Heart and Lung Center in New Jersey, told Healthline.

Researchers analyzed data on more than 25,000 people with no history of heart disease who had undergone both cardiac CT scans and coronary CT angiography (CCTA) scans.

CCTA provides more advanced radiologic imaging than the cardiac CT scans used to generate CAC scores.

The CCTA scans found that higher CAC scores generally corresponded with higher detected levels of atherosclerosis.

For example, among study participants with a CAC score closer to 400, nearly half had significant blockage, where more than 50 percent of the blood flow was obstructed in one of the coronary arteries.

However, CCTA scans found that atherosclerosis could also occur in people with a CAC score of zero.

The study showed that 5 percent of people with a zero CAC score had atherosclerosis detected by CCTA, and 0.4 percent had significant obstruction of blood flow.

“A high CAC score means there is a high likelihood of having obstruction of the coronary arteries,” Bergström said. “However, more importantly, a zero CAC score does not exclude adults from having atherosclerosis, especially if they have many traditional risk factors of coronary disease.”

Bergström noted that current American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology guidelines for heart attack prevention say that adults with a zero CAC score and intermediate levels of risk factors are at low risk of a future heart attack.

However, he said, “We found that 9.2 percent of people who fit that description had atherosclerosis in their coronary arteries visible by CCTA.”

Bergström noted that the non-calcified atherosclerosis detected by CCTA is believed to be more prone to cause heart attacks than calcified atherosclerosis.

Overall, the study found that 8 percent of adults in the study had one or more non-calcified plaques.

Bergström said follow-up studies will look at whether people with non-calcified atherosclerosis are at higher future risk of heart attack.

CCTA, which involves a higher dose of radiological imaging and the injection of contrast dye, is not currently a recommended part of heart attack prevention protocols.

However, Lloyd-Jones said the findings support broader use of CAC scoring — which can cost as little as $75 — for people with no known risk factors of heart disease.

“CAC gives us the vast majority of the information we need,” he said.

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Eating 3 Servings of Whole Grains a Day May Lower Heart Disease Risk

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A new study suggests that eating 3 servings of whole grains a day can help reduce several risk factors for heart disease including, waist size, blood pressure, blood sugar, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Getty Images
  • Research has found a link between higher whole grain consumption and lower increases in certain heart disease risk factors.
  • Nutritional experts say this may be because refining removes fiber and heart-healthy nutrients.
  • It is recommended that people eat at least three servings of whole grains a day.

According to new research published in The Journal of Nutrition, eating whole grains is associated with smaller increases in waist size, blood pressure, and blood sugar.

This was true for middle-aged and older adults who ate a minimum of three servings a day.

Those who ate less than one-half a serving a day did not fare as well.

The researchers’ goal in conducting the study was to determine just how whole grain versus refined grain consumption would affect various risk factors for heart disease, including waist size, blood pressure, blood sugar, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol.

The team used data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort — which began in the 1970s — to assess these risk factors.

There were 3,121 people who participated in the study. Most were white, with an average age in the mid-50s.

The researchers looked at the participants’ health outcomes for a median of 18 years to determine what effect whole, and refined grains had.

They compared the changes that occurred at four-year intervals.

The team found that waist size increased less among those who ingested more whole grains.

In addition, blood sugar and systolic blood pressure increases were greater in those who ate fewer servings of whole grains.

Lower intake of refined grains was also linked to greater mean decline in triglyceride levels.

According to Mary-Jon Ludy, PhD, chair of the Department of Public & Allied Health and associate professor, Food & Nutrition at Bowling Green State University in Ohio, whole grains are better for us because they include all the edible parts of the grain kernel: the bran, the germ, and the endosperm.

When grains are refined, the fiber-rich bran and the nutrient-rich germ are removed, she explained. What is left behind, the endosperm, is mainly starchy carbohydrates and a smaller amount of vitamins and minerals.

Ludy said that these lost components play important roles in health.

“Fiber helps to maintain steady blood sugar levels, can lower cholesterol, and promote healthy digestion,” she explained.

“The combination of fiber with B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin), vitamin E, minerals (iron, magnesium, selenium, zinc) provides a host of disease prevention benefits, including lower levels of inflammation and reduced rates of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity.”

She did want to note, however, that refined grains may be fortified with nutrients like folic acid that do not naturally occur in whole grains. If you are attempting to increase your whole grain consumption, especially if you are pregnant or may become pregnant, it’s a good idea to make sure you are getting enough folic acid.

Colleen Tewksbury, PhD, national spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, said the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends at least three servings of whole grains a day.

Refined grains should be limited to three servings or less.

A serving is usually the equivalent of a small slice of bread or a half-cup of a cooked grain product like pasta, oats, quinoa, or rice.

“A good place to start,” said Tewksbury, “is to look at what foods you are already eating that are refined grains and see if you can replace them with the whole grain version.

“Eating pasta? Maybe try out replacing it with whole-grain pasta,” she said. “Same for breads or other bread products.”

According to the Oldways Whole Grains Council, one easy way to determine if a food contains whole grains is to look for the whole grains stamp. They say that to reach the recommended amount of whole grains, you can eat three servings with a 100 percent stamp or six servings with any whole grain stamp.

If there is no stamp, they suggest looking elsewhere on the product for a statement that the product contains whole grains. If the first ingredient on the label is whole grain, then the chances are good that it’s mainly whole grain.

Some of the terms that may be used to identify whole grains include:

  • whole grain [name of grain]
  • whole wheat
  • whole [other grain]
  • stoneground whole [grain]
  • brown rice
  • oats, oatmeal (including old-fashioned oatmeal, instant oatmeal)
  • wheatberries
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Open-Heart Surgery


Open-heart surgery is any type of surgery where the chest is cut open and surgery is performed on the muscles, valves, or arteries of the heart.

According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)Trusted Sourcecoronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most common type of heart surgery done on adults. During this surgery, a healthy artery or vein is grafted (attached) to a blocked coronary artery. This allows the grafted artery to “bypass” the blocked artery and bring fresh blood to the heart.

Open-heart surgery is sometimes called traditional heart surgery. Today, many new heart procedures can be performed with only small incisions, not wide openings. Therefore, the term “open-heart surgery” can be misleading.

Open-heart surgery may be done to perform a CABG. A coronary artery bypass graft may be necessary for people with coronary heart disease.

Coronary heart disease occurs when the blood vessels that provide blood and oxygen to the heart muscle become narrow and hard. This is often called “hardening of the arteries.”

Hardening occurs when fatty material forms a plaque on the walls of the coronary arteries. This plaque narrows the arteries, making it difficult for blood to get through. When blood can’t flow properly to the heart, a heart attack may occur.

Open-heart surgery is also done to:

  • repair or replace heart valves, which allow blood to travel through the heart
  • repair damaged or abnormal areas of the heart
  • implant medical devices that help the heart beat properly
  • replace a damaged heart with a donated heart (heart transplantation)

According to the National Institutes of HealthTrusted Source, a CABG takes from three to six hours. It’s generally done following these basic steps:

  • The patient is given general anesthesia. This ensures that they will be asleep and pain free through the whole surgery.
  • The surgeon makes an 8- to 10-inch cut in the chest.
  • The surgeon cuts through all or part of the patient’s breastbone to expose the heart.
  • Once the heart is visible, the patient may be connected to a heart-lung bypass machine. The machine moves blood away from the heart so that the surgeon can operate. Some newer procedures do not use this machine.
  • The surgeon uses a healthy vein or artery to make a new path around the blocked artery.
  • The surgeon closes the breastbone with wire, leaving the wire inside the body.
  • The original cut is stitched up.

Sometimes sternal plating is done for people at high risk, such as those who’ve had multiple surgeries or people of advanced age. Sternal plating is when the breastbone is rejoined with small titanium plates after the surgery.

Risks for open-heart surgery include:

  • chest wound infection (more common in patients with obesity or diabetes, or those who’ve had a CABG before)
  • heart attack or stroke
  • irregular heartbeat
  • lung or kidney failure
  • chest pain and low fever
  • memory loss or “fuzziness”
  • blood clot
  • blood loss
  • breathing difficulty
  • pneumonia

According to the Heart and Vascular Center at the University of Chicago Medicine, the heart-lung bypass machine is associated with increased risks. These risks include stroke and neurological problems.

Tell your doctor about any drugs you are taking, even over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and herbs. Inform them of any illnesses you have, including herpes outbreak, cold, flu, or fever.

In the two weeks before the surgery, your doctor may ask you to quit smoking and stop taking blood-thinning medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

It’s important to talk to your doctor about your alcohol consumption before you prepare for the surgery. If you typically have three or more drinks a day and stop right before you go into surgery, you may go into alcohol withdrawal. This may cause life-threatening complications after open-heart surgery, including seizures or tremors. Your doctor can help you with alcohol withdrawal to reduce the likelihood of these complications.

The day before the surgery, you may be asked to wash yourself with a special soap. This soap is used to kill bacteria on your skin and will lessen the chance of an infection after surgery. You may also be asked not to eat or drink anything after midnight.

Your healthcare provider will give you more detailed instructions when you arrive at the hospital for surgery.

When you wake up after surgery, you will have two or three tubes in your chest. These are to help drain fluid from the area around your heart. You may have intravenous (IV) lines in your arm to supply you with fluids, as well as a catheter (thin tube) in your bladder to remove urine.

You will also be attached to machines that monitor your heart. Nurses will be nearby to help you if something should arise.

You will usually spend your first night in the intensive care unit (ICU). You will then be moved to a regular care room for the next three to seven days.

Taking care of yourself at home immediately after the surgery is an essential part of your recovery.

Incision care

Incision care is extremely important. Keep your incision site warm and dry, and wash your hands before and after touching it. If your incision is healing properly and there is no drainage, you can take a shower. The shower shouldn’t be more than 10 minutes with warm (not hot) water. You should ensure that the incision site isn’t hit directly by the water. It’s also important to regularly inspect your incision sites for signs of infection, which include:

  • increased drainage, oozing, or opening from the incision site
  • redness around the incision
  • warmth along the incision line
  • fever

Pain management

Pain management is also incredibly important, as it can increase recovery speed and decrease the likelihood of complications like blood clots or pneumonia. You may feel muscle pain, throat pain, pain at incision sites, or pain from chest tubes. Your doctor will likely prescribe pain medication that you can take at home. It’s important that you take it as prescribed. Some doctors recommend taking the pain medication both before physical activity and before you sleep.

Get enough sleep

Some patients experience trouble sleeping after open-heart surgery, but it’s important to get as much rest as possible. To get better sleep, you can:

  • take your pain medication a half hour before bed
  • arrange pillows to decrease muscle strain
  • avoid caffeine, especially in the evenings

In the past, some have argued that open-heart surgery leads to a decline in mental functioning. However, most recent research has found that not to be the case. Though some patients may have open-heart surgery and experience mental decline later on, it’s thought that this is most likely due to the natural effects of aging.

Some people do experience depression or anxiety after open-heart surgery. A therapist or psychologist can help you manage these effects.


Most people who’ve had a CABG benefit from participating in a structured, comprehensive rehabilitation program. This is usually done outpatient with visits several times a week. The components to the program include exercise, reducing risk factors, and dealing with stress, anxiety, and depression.

Expect a gradual recovery. It may take up to six weeks before you start feeling better, and up to six months to feel the full benefits of the surgery. However, the outlook is good for many people, and the grafts can work for many years.

Nevertheless, surgery does not prevent artery blockage from happening again. You can help improve your heart health by:

  • eating a healthy diet
  • cutting back on foods high in salt, fat, and sugar
  • leading a more active lifestyle
  • not smoking
  • controlling high blood pressure and high cholesterol
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Everything You Need to Know About Cardiac Asthma

 Despite the name, cardiac asthma isn’t a type of asthma. It refers to breathing difficulty caused by fluid buildup in the lungs as a result of heart failure.

Cardiac asthma can be potentially life threatening, and a proper diagnosis is critical. However, it can be misdiagnosed as asthma due to the similarities between the symptoms. People with either condition can experience coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing.

Keep reading as we break down everything you need to know about cardiac asthma, including what causes it, what symptoms occur, and how it’s treated.

Cardiac asthma is a collection of asthma-like respiratory symptoms caused by congestive heart failure. The term “cardiac asthma” was first coined in medical literature in 1833 by Dr. James Hope.

People with cardiac asthma typically experience symptoms such as coughing, trouble breathing, and shortness of breath due to pulmonary congestion. This is a buildup of fluid in your lungs that impairs your ability to oxygenate your blood.

Your heart has four chambers: the left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, and right ventricle.

In people with congestive heart failure, the heart can’t properly pump blood out of the left ventricle or the pressure in the ventricle is high. This disruption in blood flow leads to increased blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs, which causes leakage and accumulation of fluid.

Symptoms of cardiac asthma include:

  • wheezing
  • trouble breathing
  • rapid breathing
  • coughing
  • grunting
  • bloody sputum
  • frothy sputum
  • orthopnea (shortness of breath when lying down)
  • rales (abnormal sounds heard when listening to the lung with a stethoscope)
  • paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (waking up at night gasping for air)

Symptoms of cardiac asthma may be the initial symptoms of heart failure, or they may be present along with other signs of heart failure, such as:

  • chest pain
  • fainting
  • fatigue
  • irregular heart rate
  • skin that appears blue
  • swelling in the legs, feet, or ankles
  • weight gain from fluid retention
  • increased need to urinate, often at night

Cardiac asthma can be difficult to diagnose due to its similarity to asthma. Misdiagnosis is common. To differentiate between the two, a doctor will likely start by looking at your medical history and risk factors to determine whether heart failure is the cause.

Tests that may be performed to help diagnose heart failure include:

  • Physical exam. The doctor may look for other signs of cardiac asthma and heart failure, such as abnormal sounds in your lungs when breathing and abnormal heart rate.
  • Blood tests. The doctor may recommend a blood test to help diagnose conditions that can lead to heart failure, check for markers of increased fluid, and rule out other potential causes for your symptoms.
  • Electrocardiogram. An electrocardiogram monitors the electric activity of your heart and helps identify abnormalities in your heart rhythm.
  • Echocardiogram. An echocardiogram is a type of ultrasound that uses sound waves to produce a picture of your heart. The picture can show the doctor how much blood your heart is pumping and screen for irregularities or abnormalities in the pumping function.
  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can help identify an enlarged heart or fluid in your lungs.
  • Breathing tests. Your doctor may recommend breathing tests like a spirometry test or a peak flow test to screen for lung problems.
  • Other imaging techniques. A CT or MRI scan may also be used to produce images to assess the health of your heart.

Tips for your medical appointment

If you think you may be experiencing cardiac asthma, it’s critical to seek medical attention immediately.

Persistent wheezing, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing are all signs that you should talk with a medical professional, especially if your symptoms get worse when you lie down.

It can help to ask yourself the following questions while you’re waiting to see a doctor to help determine whether it’s cardiac asthma:

  • Has anyone in my family experienced heart failure?
  • Do I have any risk factors for heart failure, such as high blood pressure or coronary artery disease?
  • Does anybody in my family have asthma?
  • Have I had asthma before?
  • Are there other potential causes for my breathing trouble, like the flu or a respiratory infection?
  • Is my breathing trouble keeping me awake?

Cardiac asthma is caused by heart failure. The most common cause of heart failure in adults is coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked, unable to deliver blood and even closing completely due to a heart attack. It’s usually caused by atherosclerosis, or the buildup of cholesterol and plaque in the blood vessels.

Other conditions that can cause or contribute to the development of heart failure include:

  • past heart attacks
  • abnormal heart rhythm
  • uncontrolled high blood pressure
  • heart valve disorders
  • cardiomyopathy
  • hyperthyroidism
  • myocarditis
  • heart defects present from birth
  • diabetes
  • severe lung disease
  • obesity
  • kidney failure
  • severe anemia
  • sleep apnea

Classic asthma medications like bronchodilators are thought to have limited effectivenessTrusted Source for treating cardiac asthma. Treatment for cardiac asthma involves addressing the underlying heart failure and fluid buildup in the lungs.


Medications traditionally used to treat an emergency case of cardiac asthma include:

  • morphine
  • furosemide or diuretics to remove fluid
  • nitroglycerin

Once your symptoms stabilize, you may be given ACE inhibitors or beta-blockers or both to prevent another episode. ACE inhibitors help widen blood vessels and unload the heart, while beta-blockers slow your heart rate and lower your blood pressure.

Oxygen and ventilation

If your body isn’t receiving enough oxygen, you’ll likely be given oxygen or put on a noninvasive ventilator. In severe cases, you could need a breathing tube. However, these treatments aren’t necessary if you’re able to breathe well enough to get adequate oxygen.


Some people will need surgical interventions, such as an angioplasty or coronary bypass surgery, to improve blood flow to the heart and make the heart stronger. The final treatment option when all other treatments have failed is a heart transplant.

Lifestyle tips for cardiac asthma

Living an overall healthy lifestyle may help improve your heart failure symptoms or prevent heart failure in the first place. Some habits you can adopt include:

  • exercising regularly
  • avoiding smoking
  • minimizing alcohol intake
  • minimizing stress
  • getting adequate sleep
  • maintaining a healthy weight

Cardiac asthma is a secondary condition caused by heart failure. The outlook for people with heart failure improves the sooner they receive proper treatment. However, it can vary widely between people.

The life expectancy of somebody with cardiac asthma depends on how far their heart failure has progressed, the underlying cause, and their overall health.

Mortality rates at 1 year and 5 years after heart failure diagnosis are about 22 and 43 percentTrusted Source, respectively.

Cardiac asthma is a condition caused by heart failure that leads to asthma-like symptoms, such as wheezing, coughing, and trouble breathing. It’s caused by a buildup of fluid in the lungs due to the inability of the heart to effectively clear fluid from the lungs.

Cardiac asthma is often misdiagnosed as asthma, but a proper diagnosis is critical for receiving proper treatment maximizing your outlook.

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